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Principal Investigator

Chia-Ying Lee

Research Fellow

Contact Information

Email: chiaying@gate.sinica.edu.tw
Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica
No. 128, Section 2, Academia Road 115, Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C

Experience & Education

Research fellow, Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica
Associate Research fellow, Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica
Post-Doctoral Associate, Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA
Post-Doctoral Fellow of Cognitive Neuropsychology Laboratory, National Yang-Ming University
Ph.D. National Chung-Cheng University, Psychology Department

Field of specialty

Psycholinguistics, Neurolinguistics, cognitive neuroscience of language development and language impairment, dyslexia and aphasia

Research interests

Dr. Chia-Ying Lee’s research interests concerns the neurobiological basis of spoken and written Chinese language processing. Dr. Lee’s research team, the Brain and Language Laboratory, uses the advanced neuroimaging techniques (including eye-tracker, ERPs, MEG, and fMRI) to investigate how Chinese language is represented and processed in the brain, how language architecture in the brain changes from infancy to ageing and in clinical populations such Aphasia and Dementia. The ongoing research projects include cognitive and neural underpinnings of language acquisition and reading comprehension, developmental trajectories of speech perception in infants and young children, the relationship between brain signatures measured in early childhood and later reading development, and the nature of language impairment and dyslexia. The ultimate goals are to establish a comprehensive neurocognitive model for Chinese language processing and to provide a set of neural markers for early identification and intervention evaluation in clinical and educational settings.

Honors & Awards


Outstanding Research Award (ORA), Ministry of Science and Technology


Fellow of Association for Psychological Science (APS)


Outstanding Research Award (ORA), Ministry of Science and Technology


Special Outstanding Talent Award, National Science Council


Excellent Scholar Project Award for Junior Research Investigators, Ministry of Science and Technology


Travel grant from the Society for Psychophysiological Research


Excellent Scholar Project Award for Junior Research Investigators, National Science Council

2007 Academia Sinica Research Award for Junior Research Investigators


Awards of the British Academy and the National Science Council grant scheme


Human brain mapping travel awards, Organization for Human Brain Mapping Conference


Scholarship of National Science Council

Publications (2011-present)      ResearchGate     (click here to download fulltext)

Hsin, C.-H., Chao, P.-C., Lee, C.-Y.* (2023). Speech comprehension in noisy environments: Evidence from the predictability effects on the N400 and LPC. Frontiers in Psychology, section Language Sciences, 14, 1105346. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2023.1105346 (SSCI; corresponding author: Lee, C.-Y.)

Yeh, P.-W.*, Lee, C.-Y., Cheng, Y.-Y., & Chiang, C.-H. (2023). Neural correlates of understanding emotional words in late childhood. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 183, 19-31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2022.11.007 (SSCI)

Tseng, R.-Y, Wang, T.-W., Fu, S.-W., Lee, C.-Y., & Tsao, Y. (2021). A Study of Joint Effect on Denoising Techniques and Visual Cues to Improve Speech Intelligibility in Cochlear Implant Simulation. IEEE Transactions on Cognitive and Developmental Systems, 13(4), 984-994. doi: 10.1109/TCDS.2020.3017042. (SCIE)

Lee, H.-J., Cheng, S.-K., Lee, C.-Y., & Kuo, W.-J. (2021). The neural basis of compound word processing revealed by varying semantic transparency and morphemic neighborhood size. Brain and Language, 221, 104985. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandl.2021.104985 (SCIE, SSCI)

Chao, P.-C., Chen, W.-F., Zevin, J., & Lee, C.-Y. * (2021). Neural correlates of phonology-to-orthography mapping consistency effects on Chinese spoken word recognition. Brain and Language, 219, 104961. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandl.2021.104961 (SCIE, SSCI; corresponding author: Lee, C.-Y.)

Hsin, C.-T.*, Yu, C. Y., & Lee, C.-Y. (2021). Teaching strategies and effects of an Indigenous culturally integrated phonological curriculum for young children. Taiwan Indigenous Studies Review, 29, 25-54. [in Chinese]

Hsu, C.-H., Wu, Y.-N., & Lee, C.-Y. (2021). Effects of phonological consistency and semantic radical combinability on N170 and P200 in the reading of Chinese phonograms. Frontiers in Psychology, section Language Sciences, 12, 603878. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.603878 (SSCI)

Wu, C.-H., Lin, T.-J., Chiou, G.-L., Lee, C.-Y., Luan, H., Tsai, M.-J., Potvin, P., & Tsai, C.-C. (2021). A systematic review of MRI neuroimaging for education research. Frontiers in Psychology, section Educational Psychology, 12, 617599. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.617599 (SSCI)

Cheng, Y.-Y., Wu, H.-C., Shih, H.-Y., Yeh, P.-W., Yen, H.-L., & Lee, C.-Y.* (2021). Deficits in processing of lexical tones in Mandarin-speaking children with developmental language disorder: Electrophysiological evidence. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 64(4), 1176-1188. https://doi.org/10.1044/2021_JSLHR-19-00392 (SCIE, SSCI; corresponding author: Lee, C.-Y.)

Tseng, R.-Y, Wang, T.-W., Fu, S.-W., Lee, C.-Y., & Tsao, Y. (2020). A Study of Joint Effect on Denoising Techniques and Visual Cues to Improve Speech Intelligibility in Cochlear Implant Simulation. IEEE Transactions on Cognitive and Developmental Systems. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1109/TCDS.2020.3017042. (SCI)

Chang, Y. N., & Lee, C.-Y. (2020). Age of Acquisition Effects on Traditional Chinese Character Naming and Lexical Decision. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 27,1317-1324. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-020-01787-8 (SSCI)

Lee, C. Y. (2019). Neural Underpinnings of Early Speech Perception and Emergent Literacy. Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica, 71(4), 146-155.  https://doi.org/10.1159/000497058 (SSCI)

Chao, P.-C. Chen, W.-F., & Lee, C.-Y.* (2019). The second-order effect of orthography-to-phonology mapping consistency on Chinese spoken word recognition. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 51, 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroling.2018.11.002 (SCI, SSCI; corresponding author: Lee, C.-Y.)

Hsu, C.-H.*, Pylkkänen, L., & Lee, C.-Y. (2019). Effects of Morphological Complexity in Left Temporal Cortex: An MEG Study of Reading Chinese Disyllabic Words. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 49, 168-177. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroling.2018.06.004 (SCI, SSCI)

Chang, Y.-N. & Lee, C.-Y. (2018). Semantic ambiguity effects on traditional Chinese character naming: A corpus-based approach. Behavior Research Methods, 50(6), 2292-2304. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13428-017-0993-4 (SSCI)

Chui, K., Lee, C.-Y., Yeh, K., & Chao, P.-C. (2018). Semantic processing of self-adaptors, emblems, and iconic gestures: An ERP study. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 47, 105-122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroling.2018.04.004 (SCI, SSCI)

Cheng, Y.-Y., & Lee, C.-Y.* (2018). The Development of Mismatch Responses to Mandarin Lexical Tone in 12- to 24-Month-old infants. Frontiers in Psychology, 9(448), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00448 (SSCI, corresponding author: Lee, C.-Y.)

Huang, H.-W., & Lee, C.-Y. (2018). Number of Meanings and Number of Senses: An ERP Study of Sublexical Ambiguities in Reading Chinese Disyllabic Compounds. Frontiers in Psychology, 9(324), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00324 (SSCI)

Tzeng, Y.-L., Hsu, C.-H., Lin, W.-H., & Lee, C.-Y.* (2018). Impaired Orthographic Processing in Chinese Dyslexic Children: Evidence from the Lexicality Effect on N400. Scientific Studies of Reading, 22(1), 85-100. https://doi.org/10.1080/10888438.2017.1353996 (SSCI)

Tzeng, O. J. L., Lee, C. Y., Lee, J. R., Wu, D. H., Lee, R. R.-W., & Hung, D. L. (2017). Neurolinguistic studies of reading in Chinese. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 158, 55-68. https://doi.org/10.1002/cad.20219 (SSCI)

Tzeng, Y.-L., Hsu, C.-H., Huang, Y.-C., & Lee, C.-Y.* (2017). The Acquisition of Orthographic Knowledge: Evidence from the Lexicality Effects on N400. Frontiers in Psychology, 8(433), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00433 (SSCI)

Chang, Y.-N., Welbourne, S., & Lee, C.-Y. (2016). Exploring Orthographic Neighborhood Size Effects in a Computational Model of Chinese Character Naming. Cognitive Psychology, 91, 1-23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2016.09.001 (SCI, SSCI)
Chen, W.-F., Chao, P.-C., Chang, Y.-N., Hsu, C.-H., & Lee, C.-Y.* (2016). Effects of Orthographic Consistency and Homophone Density on Chinese Spoken Word Recognition. Brain and Language, 157-158, 51-62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandl.2016.04.005 (SCI, SSCI)
Hsu, C.-H., Lee, C.-Y., & Liang, W.-K. (2016). An improved method for measuring mismatch negativity using ensemble empirical mode decomposition. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 264, 78-85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneumeth.2016.02.015 (SCI)
Chang, Y.-N., Hsu, C.-H., Tsai, J.-L., Chen, C.-L., & Lee, C.-Y.* (2016). A psycholinguistic database for traditional Chinese character naming. Behavior Research Methods, 48(1), 112-122. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13428-014-0559-7 (SSCI)
Chiu, Y.-S., Kuo, W.-J., Lee, C.-Y., & Tzeng, O. J. L. (2016). The explicit and implicit phonological processing of Chinese characters and words in Taiwanese deaf signers. Language and Linguistics, 17(1), 63-87. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1606822X15614518 (SSCI)
Chang, C.-T., Lee, C.-Y., Chou, C.-J., Fuh, J.-L., & Wu, H.-C.* (2016). Predictability effect on N400 reflects the severity of reading comprehension deficits in aphasia. Neuropsychologia, 81, 117-128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2015.12.002 (SCI, SSCI)
Yang, M.-T., Hsu, C.-H., Yeh, P.-W., Lee, W.-T., Liang, J.-S., Fu, W.-M., & Lee, C.-Y. (2015). Attention deficits revealed by passive auditory change detection for pure tones and lexical tones in ADHD children. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 9(470), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2015.00470 (SCI)
Lee, C.-Y., Hsu, C.-H., Chang, Y.-N., Chen, W.-F., & Chao, P.-C. (2015). The feedback consistency effect in Chinese character recognition: Evidence from a psycholinguistic norm. Language and Linguistics, 16(4), 535-554. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1606822X15583238 (SSCI)
Hsu, C.-H., Evans, J.P.*, & Lee, C.-Y. (2015). Brain responses to spoken F0 changes: Is H special? Journal of Phonetics, 51, 82-92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wocn.2015.02.003 (SSCI)
Kalindi, S. C., McBride, C., Tong, X., Wong, N. L. Y., Chung, K. H. K., & Lee, C.-Y. (2015). Beyond phonological and morphological processing: pure copying as a marker of dyslexia in Chinese but not poor reading of English. Annals of Dyslexia, 65(2),53-68. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11881-015-0097-8 (SSCI)
Cheng, Y.-Y., Wu, H.-C., Tzeng, Y.-L., Yang, M.-T., Zhao, L.-L., & Lee, C.-Y.* (2015). Feature-specific transition from positive mismatch response to mismatch negativity in early infancy: Mismatch responses to vowels and initial consonants. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 96(2), 84-94. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2015.03.007 (SCI, SSCI)
Hsu, C-H., Lee, C.-Y., & Tzeng, O. J.-L. (2014). Early MEG markers for reading Chinese phonograms: evidence from radical combinability and consistency effects. Brain and Language,139, 1-9. (SCI, SSCI)
Han, Y.-J., Huang, S.-C., Lee, C.-Y., Kuo, W.-J., & Cheng, S.-K. (2014). The modulation of semantic transparency on the recognition memory for two-character Chinese words. Memory & Cognition, 42(8), 1315-1324. (SSCI)
Tong, X., McBride, C., Lee, C.-Y., Zhang, J., Shuai, L., Maurer, U., & Chung, K. K.H. (2014). Segmental and Suprasegmental Features in Speech Perception in Cantonese-speaking Second Graders: An ERP Study. Psychophysiology, 51(1), 1158-1168.(SCI, SSCI)
Tong, X., McBride, C., Zhang, J., Chung, K.K.H., Lee, C.-Y., Shuai, L., & Tong, X. (2014). Neural correlates of acoustic cues of English lexical stress in Cantonese-speaking children. Brain and Language, 138, 61-70.(SCI, SSCI)
Chou, C.-J., Huang, H.-W., Lee, C.-L., & Lee, C.-Y.* (2014). Effects of Semantic Constraint and Cloze probability on Chinese Classifier-Noun Agreement. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 31, 42-54. (SCI, SSCI; corresponding author: Lee, C.-Y.)
Hsu, C-H., Lin, S.-K., Hsu, Y.-Y., Lee, C.-Y.* (2014). The neural generators of the mismatch responses to Mandarin lexical tones: an MEG study. Brain Research, 1582, 154-166. (SCI; corresponding author: Lee, C.-Y.)
Kuo, Y.-C., Lee, C.-Y., Chen. M.-C., Liu, T.-L., & Cheng, S.-K. (2014). The impact of spectral resolution on the mismatch response to Mandarin Chinese tones: An ERP study of cochlear implant simulations. Clinical Neurophysiology, 125(8), 1568-1575. (SCI)
Cheng, Y.-Y., Wu, H.-C., Tzeng, Y.-L., Yang, M.-T., Zhao, L.-L., & Lee, C.-Y.* (2013). The Development of Mismatch Responses to Mandarin Lexical Tones in Early Infancy. Developmental Neuropsychology, 38(5), 281-300. (SCI, SSCI; corresponding author: Lee, C.-Y.)
Tzeng, O. J.-L., Lee, C.-Y., Lee, J.-R., Wu, D. H., Huan, C.-H., Cheng, S.-K., Lee, R. R.-W., Huang, C.-M., Kuo, N. W.-J., Chang, E. C.-H., & Hung, D. L. (2013). Cognitive Neuroscience in the 21st Century: A Selective Review of Prominent Research Topics and Applications. Journal of Neuroscience and Neuroengineering, 2(4), 364-381.
Lee, C.-Y., Yen, H.-L., Yeh, P.-W., Lin, W.-H., Cheng, Y.-Y., Tzeng, Y.-L., & Wu, H.-C. (2012). Mismatch Responses to Lexical Tone, Initial Consonant, and Vowel in Mandarin-Speaking Preschoolers. Neuropsychologia, 50(14), 3228-3239. (SCI, SSCI; corresponding author: Lee, C.-Y.)
Tzeng, Y.-L., & Lee, C.-Y. (2012). The Developmental Trajectories of Orthography-to-Phonology Mapping Consistency in Learning to Read Chinese. Contemporary Educational Research Quarterly, 20(4), 45-84. (TSSCI, corresponding author: Lee, C.-Y.; in Chinese)
Lee, C.-Y., Liu, Y.-N., & Tsai, J.-L. (2012). The time course of contextual effects on visual word recognition. Frontiers in Psychology, 3(285), 1-13.
Huang, C.-Y., Lee, C.-Y.*, Huang, H.-W., & Chou, C.-J. (2011). Number of sense effects of Chinese disyllabic compounds in the two hemispheres. Brain and Language, 119(2), 99-109. (SCI, SSCI; corresponding author: Lee, C.-Y.)
Liu, C.-L., Lai, M.-H., Tien, K.-W., Chuang, Y.-H., Wu, S.-H., & Lee, C.-Y. (2011). Visually and phonologically similar characters in incorrect Chinese words: Analyses, identification, and applications. ACM Transactions on Asian Language Information Processing, 10(2), 1-39. (EI)
Huang, H.-W., Lee, C.-Y., Tsai, J.-L., & Tzeng, O. J.-L. (2011). The sublexical semantic ambiguity effects for reading Chinese disyllabic compounds. Brain and Language, 17(2), 77-87. (SCI, SSCI)
Hsu, C.-H., Lee, C.-Y., & Marantz, A. (2011). Effects of visual complexity and sublexical information in the occipitotemporal cortex in the reading of Chinese phonograms: a single-trial analysis with MEG. Brain and Language, 117(1), 1-11. (SCI, SSCI)